分步收集指引 & 分析标本

Learn the procedures, equipment, and requirements for collecting & 分析标本.


作为一名医学实验室技术员, you play a critical role in the health care system. From routine medical tests to more advanced ones, your work helps doctors identify severe illnesses. A medical laboratory technician’s primary responsibility is collecting and analyzing blood and other bodily fluids samples. 这个角色是诊断过程的关键组成部分. 医生或外科医生会安排这些检查, but the medical laboratory technician or the medical laboratory scientist typically tests the samples.

(点击这里查看我们的完整列表 医学实验室技术员职责 & 责任)

作为一名医学实验室技术员, you can have a fulfilling career impacting patient health by assisting with medical diagnosis. +, it’s a career in demand as the population ages and requires additional medical care. 的 劳工统计局 projects that the job market for medical laboratory technicians will grow by 7% 从现在到2030年.

Read on to learn more about this essential skill and its role in the healthcare system. 了解更多关于 成为一名医学实验室技术员.


Specimen collection and analysis is collecting blood or urine from a patient and analyzing it in the lab. Medical laboratory technicians can be confused with phlebotomists, but they are different. While medical laboratory technicians and phlebotomists collect blood samples, medical laboratory technicians also collect other bodily fluids. 抽血师只处理血液样本.

Once the sample is collected, a medical laboratory technician analyzes it to look for abnormalities. After the sample is analyzed, the blood or urine sample will return normal or abnormal findings. 的se results are passed to the doctor or surgeon who ordered the test.

采集标本的目的是什么 & 分析?

Laboratory testing performed by a medical laboratory technician contributes vital information about a patient’s health. 准确性取决于患者的准备情况, 勤奋的标本收集和处理, 以及彻底的样本分析. Doctors and surgeons then use specimen collection and analysis results to help diagnose patient health problems.

采集标本需要多长时间 & 分析?

收集尿液或血液样本只需要几分钟. 有些病人需要单一样本, 而其他的, 比如那些需要葡萄糖耐量测试的人, 可能需要多次/定时采集标本.

用最常见的血液和尿液测试, the results from the medical laboratory technician are usually delivered to the doctor within 24 hours. 一个完整的代谢组测试可能需要一到三天.


Blood tests are the most common specimens analyzed by medical laboratory technicians. Below are four of the most common blood tests ordered by doctors:

  • 全血计数 (CBC) — This test helps evaluate your overall health and tests for a wide range of health issues. 全血细胞计数测试你血液的特征和成分, 包括红细胞计数, 白细胞计数, 和其他人.
  • 基础代谢组 — This test measures common electrolytes in the blood and other compounds. 例子包括钙, 葡萄糖, 钠, 钾, 二氧化碳, 氯, 血尿素氮, 和肌酸酐.
  • 完全代谢组 — This blood test measures all the factors mentioned in the basic panel above, 它增加了两种蛋白质测试(白蛋白和总蛋白), 还有四项肝功能检查. A doctor may order a complete panel to determine a patient’s liver or kidney function.
  • 脂质板 — 脂质板s are analyzed by medical laboratory technicians to find the amount of cholesterol in the body. 这分为两个名称, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL).



在很多情况下, 将样品提交测试是有目的的, 如确认怀孕或高胆固醇. 的se are a few of the tests which look for a specific finding:

  • 验血妊娠试验 — Most people are familiar with at-home pregnancy tests that produce results from a urine sample. A medical laboratory technician will conduct testing on a blood sample looking for quantitative or qualitative results. A qualitative blood test confirms a positive or negative pregnancy since sometimes an at-home test can be inaccurate. A quantitative blood test details the amount of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), 怀孕期间产生的荷尔蒙, 存在于女性体内.
  • 甲状腺测试 -当医学实验室技术员进行甲状腺检查时, the goal is to test for the presence of thyroid hormone in the blood. 的 technician will look for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), along with other measurements. 的 results can determine if a person has a medical condition affecting their thyroid, 比如甲状腺功能减退或甲状腺功能亢进.
  • 癌症的测试 — 的re are different blood test types used by medical laboratory technicians to detect the presence of cancer cells. 的 test ordered by the doctor will depend on the type of cancer they suspect may be present.
  • 性传播感染测试 — Blood samples can be used for the detection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) which often consist of rapid HIV tests. Medical laboratory technicians also look for the presence of herpes, 肝炎, 梅毒, 以及血液中的其他性传播感染. Swabs and urine tests are simpler but may require a culture to be grown from the swab, 这比验血要花更多时间.
  • 贫血的测试 -如果医生怀疑某人患有贫血, a condition where the patient lacks enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to the body’s tissues, 医生给他做了血液检查. This may include a hemoglobin and hematocrit test, commonly called an H and H test.

谁负责采集标本 & 分析?

Various medical professionals can collect blood and urine specimens that the medical laboratory technician analyzes.

的 analysis is typically performed by a medical laboratory technician for simpler tests. A medical laboratory scientist or even a pathologist may perform more complex testing.

医学实验室技术员的工作在我们的名单上 最好的初级医疗工作 在医疗保健.

采集标本需要哪些培训 & 分析它们?

成为一名医学实验室技术员, a person needs to earn a Medical Laboratory Technician associate degree from an accredited institution. 澳门mgm美高梅手机登录学院 offers an excellent program enabling students to earn their 医学化验技术员学位 在短短64周内.

一旦你拿到学位, you are eligible to be certified by one of two major credentialing organizations: ASCP认证委员会 or 美国医疗技术专家.

的 final step is to acquire a license in the state you want to work, 尽管不是所有的州都要求这样做.


广泛的测试设备的使用, 设备可以根据实验室的大小和功能而变化. Below is a list of the possible lab equipment used by the medical laboratory technicians:

  • 显微镜
  • 血液学分析仪
  • 血气分析仪
  • 高压灭菌器
  • 电炉
  • 化学分析
  • 微分计数器
  • 组织学和细胞学设备
  • 尿液分析仪
  • DNA分析程序
  • γ计数器
  • 微型板块读者/垫圈
  • 孵化器
  • 快速分析仪
  • 免疫测定分析

Each piece of equipment performs a particular role in analyzing fluid samples. 在你的培训期间, you’ll learn each piece of lab equipment’s function and how to use them to perform an analysis.


What Tips Can Be Used to Avoid Problems with Specimen Collection & 分析?

Careful attention and following protocols can eliminate most of the potential problems that can occur with specimen collection. It is necessary to ensure the materials you are using for collection are used in strict accordance with their instructions. A common problem is collecting an insufficient amount of the sample necessary to conduct the requisite testing. Ensuring you gather the appropriate amount can help you void this issue.

Here are a few tips to follow with the general collection process:

  • 仔细检查患者信息以确保准确性.
  • Ensure the containers being used for collection have not expired.
  • Draw the samples in the proper sequence as indicated by the test you’re performing.
  • 收集足够的样本进行必要的测试.
  • 使用合适的容器/试管保存标本.
  • If required, mix the specimen with additive immediately after collection by inverting 5-10 times.
  • Carefully tighten specimen container lids to avoid leakage and/or potential contamination.
  • Label specimens immediately and provide all the pertinent information.
  • Maintain and transport the specimen at the temperature indicated in the test requirements.

每个测试都需要一个特定的方法, so it’s important you follow each step to ensure that you get accurate results.


You can enjoy a rewarding career growing in demand as a medical laboratory technician. +, 你可以有机会在不同的环境中工作, 比如门诊中心, 大学, 从大学到大城市的综合医院.

你考虑成为一名医学实验室技术员吗? 在澳门mgm美高梅手机登录学院,我们提供一份 加速医学实验室技术员计划 where you can earn the necessary Associate of Applied Science degree in as little as 64 weeks. 现在是时候向你的新职业迈出第一步了.